London: Collins and Harvill Press, Presentation copy. More about The Lost Footsteps. Philadelphia: Jewish Society of America, A very good - copy in a very good wrapper. Austin: Greenleaf Book Group Press, Austin : Greenleaf Book Group Press, Presentation copy from Peter Georgescu. Boulder: East European Monographs, Near Fine. Cambridge: MIT Press, Extensively illustrated with both photographs and architectural plans. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, Leipzig: Bibliographisches Institut, Edited by K. Some of the maps and the panorama are in color and folding.
More about Turkei, Rumanien, Serbien, Bulgarien. Basel: Uncolored woodcut. Image measures Unusual early woodcut map of the Transylvanian Alps showing part of the Carpathian mountains, including part of Moldova, and Bulgaria. Features great mountain renderings as well as many rivers in this beautiful region including Olt, Mures and the Bistrita river. According to L. Grof, this map was based on Johannes Honter's map of the region which was the first separate issue map of the area.
Professor Sebastian Munster was History of Dacia before and during its conquest by the Romans. Slim square 8vo, beige cloth, d. Bucarest: Editions Meridiane, More about Nicolae Grigoresco. Malmo: Malmo Ljustrycksanstalt, Many plates.
Paris: Flammarion, Oblong 4to, black cloth, d. On 27 November, 64 former dignitaries or officials were executed by Iron Guard in Jilava prison while awaiting trial see Jilava Massacre. Later that day, historian and former prime minister Nicolae Iorga and economist Virgil Madgearu , a former government minister, were assassinated.
The cohabitation between the Iron Guard and Antonescu was never an easy one.
Third Axis Fourth Ally - Romanian Armed Forces in the European War
On 20 January , the Iron Guard attempted a coup, combined with a pogrom against the Jews of Bucharest. Within four days, Antonescu had successfully suppressed the coup. The Iron Guard was forced out of the government.
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Sima and many other legionnaires took refuge in Germany; others were imprisoned. Romania joined in the offensive, with Romanian troops crossing the River Prut. The Romanian contribution of troops was enormous.
The Romanian Army had a total of , men under arms in the summer of and a total of 1,, men in the summer of A Country Study by the U. Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress attributes this to a "morbid competition with Hungary to curry Hitler's favor Romania instituted a civil government in occupied Soviet lands immediately east of the Dniester. After the Battle of Odessa , this included the city of Odessa.
Third Axis Fourth Ally
Romanian armies advanced far into the Soviet Union during and before being involved in the disaster at the Battle of Stalingrad in the winter of Prior to the Soviet counteroffensive at Stalingrad, the Antonescu government considered a war with Hungary over Transylvania an inevitability after the expected victory over the Soviet Union. Air Force. The Romanian Army used both Soviet and German equipment extensively during the war.
Throughout the Antonescu years, Romania supplied Nazi Germany and the Axis armies with oil, grain, and industrial products. Also, numerous train stations in the country, such as Gara de Nord in Bucharest, served as transit points for troops departing for the Eastern Front. Consequently, by Romania became a target of Allied aerial bombardment. Bucharest was subjected to intense Allied bombardment on 4 and 15 April , and the Luftwaffe itself bombed the city on 24 and 25 August after the country switched sides. In February , with the decisive Soviet counteroffensive at Stalingrad, it was growing clear that the tide of the war was turning against the Axis powers.
By , the Romanian economy was in tatters because of the expenses of the war, and destructive Allied air bombing throughout Romania , including the capital, Bucharest. In addition, most of the products sent to Germany were provided without monetary compensation. As a result of these "uncompensated exports", inflation in Romania skyrocketed, causing widespread discontent among the Romanian population, even among groups and individuals who had once enthusiastically supported the Germans and the war. This first Soviet attacks were held back by Axis defensive lines in northern Romania.
The Jassy—Kishinev Offensive , launched on 20 August , resulted in a quick and decisive Soviet breakthrough, collapsing the German-Romanian front in the region.
Special order items
On 23 August , just as the Red Army was penetrating the Moldavian front, King Michael I of Romania led a successful coup with support from opposition politicians and the army. Michael I, who was initially considered to be not much more than a figurehead, was able to successfully depose the Antonescu dictatorship. The King then offered a non-confrontational retreat to German ambassador Manfred von Killinger. But the Germans considered the coup "reversible" and attempted to turn the situation around by military force. The Romanian First , Second forming , and what little was left of the Third and the Fourth Armies one corps were under orders from the King to defend Romania against any German attacks.
King Michael offered to put the Romanian Army, which at that point had a strength of nearly 1,, men,  on the side of the Allies. This resulted in a split of the country between those that still supported Germany and its armies and those that supported the new government, the latter often forming partisan groups and gradually gaining the most support.
Third Axis Fourth Ally: Romanian Armed Forces in the European War,…
To the Germans the situation was very precarious as Romanian units had been integrated in the Axis defensive lines: not knowing which units were still loyal to the Axis cause and which ones joined the Soviets or discontinued fighting altogether, defensive lines could suddenly collapse. In a radio broadcast to the Romanian nation and army on the night of 23 August King Michael issued a cease-fire,  proclaimed Romania's loyalty to the Allies, announced the acceptance of an armistice to be signed on September 12  offered by Great Britain, the United States , and the USSR, and declared war on Germany.
The armistice was signed three weeks later on 12 September , on terms virtually dictated by the Soviet Union. His capstone research paper at BYU focused on the communist takeover in Romania. His thesis dealt with German stereotypes of the Romanian Army during the Second World War and has since been published. He has just participated as a fellow in the Auschwitz Jewish Center programme.
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